Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) uses a highly energetic and focused Nd:YAG laser pulse to
ionize a small number of particles on the sample’s surface. As this plume expands, the expelled particles
become excited before almost immediately dropping back down in energy and releasing photons. As the specific
frequency of this emitted light varies from element to element, LIBS can, in principle, determine the
composition of any mineral.
Detection of diffused beryllium within corundum (i.e. “new heat”) when present at quantities in excess of 2 ppm.